This Alien Shore - C.S. Friedman

So they've now revealed that the two characters the story seems to follow are both what would be usually considered non-neurotypical.  

 

One of them, not on earth, is considered completely normal but is aware that his way of thinking and being is considered 'abnormal' on Earth to the point that they have tried to eradicate and "cure" people like him, including with drugs and DNA therapies. This comes up because he is facing going out into an environment where he will have to interact directly with Earthlings.  

 

The other main character is part of a multiplicity, who at ~75 or so pages in learns this.  Before then we have hints of disassociative episodes and more developed internal voice(s).  She was being experimented on at her station, unknown to her, because the scientists wanted to see if they could pull out a specific personality/identity, while also it seems, paring down the others.  The alters discuss reintegration in terms of death.  They don't all look like the physical vessel that they are within - differing in gender and appearance.

 

I'm really liking how this is being handled at a narrative level.  They are characters with these aspects that are simply a part of them, not a disorder with a face and name.